Using my 7D Mk2 and an F1.8 50mm prime and three coloured filters I decided to see what difference they made to a black and white image. The left-hand images are colour and the right-hand images are the black and white conversions. There were no tonal adjustments made in lightroom save for lens correction, sharpening and a slight adjustment of the dehaze slider, any adjustments were made to all images with the identical settings. Each set of images were shot just seconds apart, but the sky was changing rapidly so some variation in overall results is expected as this was not a controlled environment.
The above images are without any filter and used as a control sample.
With a yellow filter, the contrast has really improved on the sky giving it much more texture than the control sample or any of the other test shots.
With an orange filter, the contrast in this image was slightly reduced and it seems like some detail is lost in the sky.
And finally, with a red filter, there is a balance between the yellow and the orange. Some detail lost in the sky but the tree seems to pop from the sky more than the other images.